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8.2 Telecommunications Act

8.2 Telecommunications Act

The Telecommunications Act governs telecommunications in Canada. It defines the broad objectives of Canada’s telecommunications policy and provides the Government of Canada with the power to give general direction to the CRTC on any of its policy objectives. It applies to several of the BCE group of companies and partnerships, including Bell Canada, Bell Mobility, NorthernTel, Télébec and Northwestel.

Under the Telecommunications Act, all facilities-based telecommunications service providers in Canada, known as telecommunications common carriers (TCCs), must seek regulatory approval for all proposed tariffs for telecommunications services, unless the services are exempt from regulation or forborne from regulation. The CRTC may exempt an entire class of carriers from regulation under the Telecommunications Act if the exemption meets the objectives of Canada’s telecommunications policy. In addition, a few large TCCs, including the BCE group TCCs, must also meet certain Canadian ownership requirements. BCE monitors and periodically reports on the level of non-Canadian ownership of its common shares.


Review of basic telecommunications services

On December 21, 2016, the CRTC issued Telecom Regulatory Policy CRTC 2016-496, Modern telecommunications services – The path forward for Canada’s digital economy. In this decision, the CRTC determined broadband Internet to be a basic service and created a new fund designed to complement government investments in expanding access to broadband Internet across Canada. The new fund will collect and distribute $750 million over a five-year period to support an aspirational goal of bringing broadband Internet with speeds of 50 Mbps to 90% of Canadian households by the end of 2021. The contributions to the new fund will be collected from telecommunications service providers, like those of the BCE group, and distributed through a competitive bidding process to support broadband deployment initiatives. The details of the competitive bidding process are to be determined through a follow-up proceeding. The fund is to start at $100 million in its first year and grow by $25 million each year until it caps out at $200 million in the fifth year.

While the timing of the new fund’s implementation is unclear at this time, it will not be implemented in 2017. While we will be required to contribute to the new broadband fund based on our percentage of industry revenues for voice, data and Internet services, the extent of the impact of this new fund on our business is not yet known, as funds contributed may be offset by any funds received should we seek and be awarded funds to deploy broadband services as part of the CRTC’s program.

In this same decision, the CRTC also indicated its intention to reduce the size of its existing fund used to support the delivery of voice services in certain rural and remote areas (currently approximately $100 million per year). Through an additional follow-up proceeding, the CRTC will consider the extent to which support for rural and remote voice services will be phased out. There are no changes to the CRTC’s fund to support video relay services (maximum $30 million per year), to which we also contribute.


Complaint regarding pricing of broadcasting content accessed via mobile devices

On January 29, 2015, the CRTC issued a decision (Mobile TV decision) concerning a complaint against Bell Mobility about the pricing of our Bell Mobile TV service compared with the rates applicable when consumers access programming content received via mobile devices over the Internet. The CRTC found that we were conferring an “undue preference” on our Mobile TV service by not subjecting it to the standard data charges. In accordance with the CRTC’s Mobile TV decision, we have ceased exempting our Mobile TV service from data charges as of April 29, 2015.

On February 20, 2015, Bell Canada filed a motion seeking leave to appeal the CRTC’s Mobile TV decision in the Federal Court of Appeal, which was granted on April 2, 2015. On June 20, 2016, the Federal Court of Appeal dismissed our appeal of the CRTC’s Mobile TV decision. Consistent with this decision, our Mobile TV service will continue to be subject to standard data charges, as it has been since April 29, 2015.


Proceedings regarding wholesale domestic wireless services

On May 5, 2015, the CRTC released Telecom Regulatory Policy CRTC 2015-177 (TRP 2015-177), which concluded its investigation into the competitiveness of wholesale wireless markets in Canada. TRP 2015-177 requires Bell Mobility, Rogers Communications Partnership (now Rogers Communications Canada Inc.) (Rogers Canada) and Telus Communications Company to issue tariffs for domestic wholesale roaming services based on the GSM standard, which are provided to all other Canadian wireless carriers but not to each other. As a condition of offering GSM-based wholesale roaming services, Bell Mobility, Rogers Canada and Telus Communications Company must provide domestic roaming service to all subscribers served by their wholesale roaming customers, including the subscribers of any mobile virtual network operators (MVNOs) operating on their roaming customers’ networks. On March 1, 2017, the CRTC issued Telecom Decision CRTC 2017-56, in which it generally approved the terms of our tariff, with minor modifications. Final approval of Bell Mobility’s, Rogers Canada’s and Telus Communications Company’s proposed wholesale roaming rates remains pending.


Mandated wholesale access to FTTP networks

On July 22, 2015, the CRTC mandated the introduction of a new disaggregated wholesale high-speed access service, including over FTTP facilities, which had so far been exempt from mandated wholesale high-speed access. While this new service is mandated for all major incumbent telephone companies and cable carriers, the first stage of its implementation is to take place only in Ontario and Québec, our two largest markets. This adverse regulatory decision may impact the specific nature, magnitude, location and timing of our future FTTP investment decisions. In particular, the introduction by the CRTC of mandated wholesale services over FTTP will undermine the incentives for facilities-based digital infrastructure providers to invest in next-generation wireline networks, particularly in smaller communities and rural areas.

On September 20, 2016, the CRTC issued Telecom Decision CRTC 2016-379, in which it largely adopted our proposals concerning the technical design of our future disaggregated wholesale high-speed access service. The rates and roll-out schedule of our new service remain to be determined by the CRTC. The mandating of rates for the new disaggregated wholesale high-speed access service that are materially different from the rates we proposed could improve the business position of our competitors and further impact our investment strategy.


Review of wholesale FTTN high-speed access service rates

As part of its ongoing review of wholesale Internet rates, on October 6, 2016 the CRTC significantly reduced, on an interim basis, some of the wholesale rates that Bell Canada and other major providers charge for access by ISPs to FTTN or cable networks, as applicable. Should such substantially lowered wholesale rates remain in place in the long-term and, in addition, should the interim rates be made retroactive, the business position of some of our competitors could improve, adversely affecting our financial performance, and our investment strategy could change, especially in relation to investment in next-generation wireline networks, particularly in smaller communities and rural areas.


National wireless services consumer code

On June 3, 2013, the CRTC issued Telecom Regulatory Policy CRTC 2013-271, which established the Wireless Code. The Wireless Code applies to all wireless services provided to individual and small business consumers (i.e. businesses that on average spend less than $2,500 per month on telecom services) in all provinces and territories.

The Wireless Code establishes regulations related to unlocking mobile phones, limiting the amount of early cancellation fees, price changes for different categories of services, and setting default caps for data roaming charges and data overage charges, among other measures.

The Wireless Code also stipulates that wireless service providers may not charge an early cancellation fee after a customer has been under contract for 24 months and that handset subsidies must be recovered in two years or less. These requirements reduce the incentive for wireless service providers to offer contracts with terms greater than two years.

The CRTC began a scheduled review of the provisions of the Wireless Code on September 26, 2016. A public hearing was held in February 2017 and a decision is expected later this year.


Canada’s telecommunications foreign ownership rules

Under the Telecommunications Act, there are no foreign investment restrictions applicable to TCCs that have less than a 10% share of the total Canadian telecommunications market as measured by annual revenues. However, foreign investment in telecommunications companies can still be refused by the government under the Investment Canada Act. The absence of foreign ownership restrictions on such small or new entrant TCCs could result in more foreign companies entering the Canadian market, including by acquiring spectrum licences or Canadian TCCs. Under the Broadcasting Act, foreign ownership restrictions continue to apply to BDUs, such as licensed cable and satellite TV service providers, and programming undertaking licensees such as Bell Media.

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